AIDS: There Will Never Be a Cure!
The word' cure' is not even in the vocabulary. 1
- Dr. Michael Gottlieb, UCLA immunologist
In order for us to understand why there will never be a cure we must first understand how the HIV operates. Our bodies were created with very distinct, complicated, and methodical operations. These operations function so routinely we never give them much thought. As an example, when was the last time you thought about breathing? You don't, you just breathe. If you have had the "wind" knocked out of you, you know how precious the moment is when you can breathe normally. Without breathing you would die. Breathing is one of the many functions of our bodies that we take for granted.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which means that it is RNA (genetic material) surrounded by protein. This is the virus that leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is acquired because we cannot inherit AIDS and it is not the result of an illness. We do not become sick and then come down with AIDS. We will see that it has a great deal to do with our behavior. It is immunodeficiency because the immune system is not protecting the body against unusual diseases or infections. It is also a syndrome because a variety of specific diseases can occur.
How our Bodies and the Virus Operate
Our white blood cells (T-Lymphocytes) house our immune system. It is important to know who the major players are in this fight and their functions. I will use the analogy of a military battle to help understand how our bodies work.
T4 Helper, Inducer cell: He is the General, he is the one that tells the rest of the cells what they are to accomplish. He is the boss.
The Macrophage: He is like a scout that roams around looking for the enemy. When he spots the enemy he reports to the T4 (The General).
B Plasma cell: This guy is in the infantry. He is the one that does the actual fighting. He attaches himself to the antigen (foreign object in the body) and begins to create antibodies (protein) to dissolve the antigen.
B Memory cell: This cell is like a super-duper-computer-secretary rolled into one. What this cell does is records what the antigen looks and acts like. Also, it records what the body did to expel the antigen from the body. This helps expedite the process if the body is exposed to the same antigen in the future.
T-8 Cytotoxic/Suppressor cell: He is kind of like a janitor and a coward. What he does is sneaks up to an infected cell, pierces its membrane, and then runs and hides behind the General. This allows the antibodies to go directly to the infected cell. Another function is that of the janitor. After the body has dissolved the antigen the T-8 helps expel the residue from the body.
Let us say that I am the 'JT bacteria" and I have entered the body. As the scout (Macrophage) is making his rounds, he spots me and reports to the General (T4) that something strange is in the body. The General then sounds the alarm and sends out the infantry (B Plasma cells). The infantry attaches to the JT bacteria and is now making the JT antibodies (protein) to dissolve the JT bacteria. But before the job is complete, the B memory cell (the secretary) records everything about the JT bacteria and everything the infantry did to dissolve the antigen, so that the next time the JT bacteria enters the body the memory cell can pull up the files and expedite the procedure. After the job is done the janitor (T-8) does his job and expels the residue. This procedure is repeated all the time in your body and you give it no thought.
Here is what happens when your body is infected with the HIV. The process is the same, except when the infantry is sent out. Keep in mind, the HIV is a retrovirus, RNA, surrounded by "protein." When the infantry attaches themselves to the HIV, they are making the HIV antibody dissolve the virus. But there is a problem, the HIV antibodies (protein) do not kill the virus, they actually protect it. They act like a "big brother," so that the body's natural functions are interrupted. The virus uses the protein as a type of fuel for survival.
Remember, we are fighting in a war. If you were a general in a war, as is the AIDS virus, who out of the five major players would you probably attack first? The General (T4) because he is the boss and tells the rest of the cells what they are to do. That is exactly what the HIV does. It attaches itself to the General and the two become one. It is as if you took two different colors of paint and mixed them together. Once they are mixed you have a new color. It is now impossible to separate the new color into two distinct colors. That is what happens with the HIV and the T-4 cell. Now, if you want to destroy the virus you have to destroy the cell as well. If the cell dies, our immune system is gone and soon we are dead.
The HIV and the T-4 (the General) have literally set up a little HIV baby factory where they are spitting out HIV at an astronomical rate. The infantry is still making HIV antibodies, and the virus is saying, "Good, because my babies have to eat and be protected." Keep in mind, each one of their babies is going to a new cell and doing the exact same thing. The General is a little preoccupied with his new "marriage" and he is on a little "honeymoon." The General no longer stimulates the cellular defense response and the immune system begins to weaken. Eventually the General collapses on himself and the boss is dead. Some experts believe he commits a type of suicide (apoptosis). 2Now there is no one to stimulate the cell's defenses and this gives way to opportunistic infections. These are infections that take advantage of the fact that there are no defenses and they enter the body and wreak havoc. Most people who die from AIDS die from these opportunistic infections. But make no mistake about it, people do die directly from AIDS. In 1992, 26% of all the people who died from AlDS-related causes died directly from AIDS.3
Out of all the major players in this war who else would you probably attack? The scout (Macrophage) because he has mobility. The HIV attacks the scout by catching a ride. The scout penetrates the blood brain barrier and the HIV looks around and sees fertile ground and says, "It's party time." The HIV hops off the scout and sets up another HIV baby factory in the brain. This is when HIV encephalopathy (dementia) sets in and the person begins to lose his/her mind.
The Progression of HIV Disease
A person gets exposed to the HIV and the process of infection has begun. The virus enters the Lymphocytes; at this point a blood test cannot detect the HIV antibodies. Usually a person has an acute illness; for a brief time, the person experiences a mild illness similar to the flu. The virus has been detected, the body is now making antibodies. You recover from your illness and have no clue you have been infected with the HIV. Usually six to twelve weeks is how long it takes for your body to produce enough antibodies to be detected by a blood test. 4This process of being detected by a test is called Seroconversion. 95% of all people seroconvert in 12 weeks (3 months).5However, it is recommended that you wait six months to be on the safe side. At any stage of the disease infected people can pass the virus on to others. Even if you have not seroconverted.
After seroconversion you now test positive for the HIV antibodies. The virus enters a latent or incubation period that can last as long as ten years. This does not mean that if you get tested it will be negative. If you get tested it will still be positive. This simply means you show no physical signs that you are sick (asymptomatic), but you can pass the virus on to others. You look healthy, feel healthy, and no one would be able to tell if you are ill by visual means. Using the term latent does not truly capture what is taking place with the HIV. The AIDS virus can hide for years in the lymph nodes before launching a final, lethal attack on its victim. The virus is never idle.
Two studies published in the March 25, 1993 journal Nature, reported that once a person is infected with the virus the HIV can congregate in lymphoid organs, such as the tonsils, spleen, adenoids and lymph nodes, where it steadily infects key blood cells and breaks down cells that filter out viruses. Eventually the filter cells in the lymph organs are destroyed; infected blood cells spill out into the body's circulation system, leading to a collapse of the immune system. 6
Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and a co-author of one of the studies published in Nature, said:
This discovery answers one of the key mysteries about the course of the disease. Many patients infected with HIV experience an initial bloom of virus particles in their blood, a condition called viremia, within weeks of exposure. But then traces of virus disappear from blood tests and patients often live without HIV symptoms for up to ten years. Eventually there is another explosion of viremia, usually followed by death from opportunistic infection. Since there was little virus in the blood, it was a puzzle why this process inevitably progressed and occurred. The bottom line of the study is that this virus is present in the lymph nodes ... and it is actively replicating ... even when there is little or no virus activity detected in the blood. 7
In effect, Fauci said, the period that doctors call the latent or symptomless stage of HIV is not latent at all. The virus is thriving in the lymph nodes and insidiously eroding the body's immune system.
The second study, co-written by Dr. Ashley T. Haase of the University of Minnesota, confirmed that the HIV thrives in the lymphoid tissue during the so-called latent period of the disease. He said the virus in the lymph nodes actively infects lymphocytes, called CD4 T-cells (the General), that reside in the lymph nodes or which are passing through. 8
Towards the later part of HIV infection, some symptoms appear, lasting a few months to several years. The antibody level will decline because the T-4 cell (General) is getting weaker, and the B plasma (infantry) is overwhelmed at the rate of reproduction of the HIV. They are simply, grossly, outnumbered. The virus gradually kills off the Lymphocytes (part of your immune system) and you develop symptoms of immune deficiency. You are now symptomatic and you are showing visible signs that you are sick. Some people call this stage: ARC - AIDS Related Complex.
The only exception to all of this is if you become infected by someone who has full blown AIDS. Case in point - Kimberly Bergalis, Richard Driskill, and John Yecs, Jr., the victims of Florida dentist David Acer. It was 3 years from the time Kimberly was intentionally infected by Acer until the time she died. For Richard, and for John it was 5 years. The so called "incubation" period was decreased substantially.
Many experts believe that the incubation period is going to increase to longer than ten years as an average. I do not agree with that assessment. If person "A" is HIV infected and is taking the drug azidothymidine (AZT), the drug most commonly given, the virus will eventually develop an immunity to AZT. The virus will incorporate the AZT into its own genetic code and continue to mutate. If Person "A" passes HIV on to person "B," person "B" also receives person "A's" mutated form of the virus. Now person "B" has an immunity to AZT, but doesn't know it. More AIDS patients are showing early resistance to AZT.
Dr. Wendell Ching of the School of Medicine of the University of California at Los Angeles, said:
Blood tests are turning up increasing numbers of AIDS-infected patients who have never taken AZT and are sick with a virus that is naturally resistant to the drug. Some of the patients may have gotten the virus from other patients who had been taking AZT and who are now transmitting the resistant virus.9
In the January 1, 1993, report published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Ching said:
People usually are infected with various strains of HIV. Once they start taking AZT, the resistant strains are the ones that survive. Eventually the resistant strains become the dominant HIV population in the patient's body. If the virus is spread to another person at that point, then the new patient develops an HIV infection that is dominated by a resistance to AZT. If this occurs widely among new cases of HIV, then there is a risk that AZT would become of little value. 10
AZT might be of little value anyway. A recent study published by Lancet on April 3, 1993, of 1,749 volunteers indicates that patients who got the drug were just as likely to succumb to the disease or die as those who got a placebo. Conducted over three years, it is the longest trial comparing AZT with a placebo among infected but symptom free volunteers.
Dr. Ian Weller, an AIDS expert at University College London Medical School who participated in the study, said:
...results are not encouraging for early intervention. Those physicians and patients who felt certain giving AZT early would be beneficial will be more uncertain. Those who waited, like myself, will be more sure we've been doing the right thing.11
Nick Partridge, director of the Terrence Higgins Trust, a British patient advocacy charity based in London, described the results as:
...very depressing for infected people who are well. It rocks the foundation of the small house of believers for using early intervention and shows how far away we are from adequate treatment of HIV. 12
Signs of HIV Infection
- Unexplained, extreme tiredness.
- Unexplained fever, shaking chills or night sweats lasting longer than a few weeks. The night sweats are not as if you woke up and had a little drool on your pillow; it is as if someone took a bucket of water and poured it on you. That is how much moisture is left in your sheets.
- Swollen glands (enlarged lymph nodes) at multiple sites, such as in the neck, armpits or groin which are otherwise unexplained and persistent.
- Pink or purple flat or raised blotches, usually about the size of a quarter, occurring on or under the skin, inside the mouth, nose, eyelids, or rectum. At first they may look like bruises, but they are firmer than the surrounding skin, are painless, and do not disappear.
- An unexplained and unintended weight loss of more than 10% of your total body weight over a period of one or more months.
- A persistent thick, whitish coating on the tongue or in the throat.
- A dry cough which has lasted too long to be caused by a common respiratory infection, especially if accompanied by u shortness of breath.
- Pain in the esophagus (food pipe) when swallowing.
- Confusion, personality changes, loss of memory and equilibrium.
- Chronic diarrhea that usually lasts a couple of weeks to a month. It is not uncommon for a patient to expel ten liters of diarrhea in a single day. This leads to the wasting syndrome.13
Each of the symptoms listed above can appear in illnesses that are not associated with AIDS. For example, everyone occasionally experiences tiredness, headaches, fevers, or diarrhea. Anyone, particularly those who have participated in high risk behaviors who had one or more of the listed symptoms for a prolonged period of time, and cannot identify another cause for the problem, should see their physician.
After symptoms of immune deficiency appear this leads to full blown AIDS. Your immune system is doing everything it can to fight off any infection. Any infection you get is devastating to you. Because you cannot fight off infections, opportunistic infections take advantage of your weakened condition.
- Pneumocystic carinii Pneumonia (PCP): The number one killer of people with AIDS. This parasite infects the lungs. Patients experience shortness of breath, sharp chest pains when inhaling deeply and a persistent, wheezing cough. There is a feeling of suffocation.
- Kaposi's sarcome (KS): This invasive form of skin cancer involves the internal organs. This is the number three killer of people with AIDS. Unlike cancers which originate from a single malignant cell and then spread to other parts of the body, independent cancerous growths of KS occur in different areas even without metastasis. KS can develop in the lungs, lymph nodes, liver, stomach, spleen and intestines. These are the quarter sized spots that appear all over your body. Both PCP and KS can appear together in the same patient.
- Candidiasis: A fungal infection which produces a condition in the mouth known as thrush (white patches like milk curds lining the mouth and tongue). Along with swollen lymph glands, candidiasis is one of the most common early warning signs of AIDS. This infection can spread to the esophagus and into the bloodstream and central nervous system. Patients develop chest pain and difficulty in swallowing.
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV): A devastating viral infection which commonly attacks the lungs and can spread throughout the body. CMV can cause blindness. Half of the young adult population in America have been infected with CMV at one time or another. There is no cure for CMV. As with other opportunistic infections, the consequences in AIDS patients are much more serious than usual. Among homosexuals, persistent repeated reinfection with CMV, often including different strains, has been implicated in the high rate of KS occurring mainly in their group.
- Herpes simplex (HSV): This causes painful, severe ulcers around the mouth and perianal (around the rectum) areas. Colitis (inflammation of the colon) may also occur with bleeding, cramps and weight loss. In AIDS patients this is serious and often has fatal consequences.
- Herpes zoster: Causes skin eruptions commonly known as "shingles." In AIDS patients it may lead to oozing blisters and large black scabs over the infected areas, such as the mouth, nose, and rectum.
- Toxoplasmosis: Caused by a small intracellular parasite which is often found in cat feces. For healthy people this is not a serious problem; however, for AIDS patients this can create havoc. It is found in AIDS patients in association with CNS symptoms such as headaches, severe lethargy (abnormal drowsiness), seizures, vomiting, fever, and psychological disturbances.
- Cryptosporidiosis: An intestinal disease caused by a parasite often found in farm lifestock, dogs, cats, and other animals. It is spread by direct contact with infected feces. In AIDS patients it may cause a devastating cholera-like syndrome, producing as much as ten liters per day of diarrhea. This leads to severe dehydration and malnutrition, causing drastic weight loss. Unlike some of the other opportunistic infections whose symptoms may be alleviated, at least temporarily, by treatment, cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients is resistant to all therapy.
- Cryptococcosis: A fungal infection which, in AIDS patients, may cause diffuse meningitis (affecting your brain and spinal cord). Symptoms include stupor, mental disturbances, and personality changes, accompanied by severe headaches, double vision and facial weakness.
- Oral "Hairy" Leukoplakia: Hairy leukoplakia appears to be associated with the papilloma virus and a virus of the herpes family. It appears on the tongue as white raised areas of thickness on the tongue. It first appeared in 1981 in San Francisco exclusively in the mouth of male homosexuals.
- Malignant lymphoma: This viral form of lymphoma associated with AIDS virus infections has been found to attack extranodal sites in the central nervous system, rectum and/or anus in persons at risk for AIDS.
- Tuberculosis: In the US TB was on the decline since the1950s, however, the disease is making a dramatic comeback due to AIDS. Now there is a form of TB that is resistant to all medication.
- HIV Wasting syndrome: This where your body is literally wasting away. Other opportunistic infections can contribute to this but you die from dehydration. HIV wasting syndrome was the second leading cause of deaths (20%) in 1992 for all patients who died from AlDS-related causes - dying directly from AIDS.
- HN encephalopathy (dementia): You are losing your mind and literally going crazy. This differs from toxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis, both of which have similar symptoms. The difference is that you can die directly from HIV dementia. In 1992 6% of all the people who died from AlDS-related causes died of HIV dementia - dying directly from AIDS.14
After a patient has gone through the three stages of AIDS (asymptomatic HIV infection, symptomatic HIV infection, and full blown AIDS) the only other step is death. With this destruction that is taking place in the body one wonders about the prospects for a cure or a vaccine in the near future. Hopefully there will be a vaccine, but there will never be a cure.
Why There Will Never be a Cure for AIDS
1. In the history of mankind we have never cured a retrovirus. Every retrovirus that has ever been with us is still with us today. Yes, we have made some vaccination, but even that is not 100 percent. It is highly unlikely that this will be the first virus cured. Patrick Dixon in his book, The Whole Truth About AIDS, says,
All our technology has failed to produce a single drug that virus directly. 15
Even as late as March 28, 1993 in Science, the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the top researchers were saying,
Despite the high-powered arsenal of contemporary biology, there is nothing on the horizon remotely resembling a cure for AIDS. Nor is there anything like a workable vaccine. 16
2. In May of 1990, the CoId Institute closed their doors. They were in existence for 40 years to find one thing - a cure for the common cold. They said there will never be a cure for the cold because it mutates too fast. The cold is caused by a virus, also. If we could not cure the common cold that moved at a snail's pace, we will not touch the HIV. The AIDS virus reproduces much more rapidly.
The common cold virus is also unstable. That is why we are always getting colds. I probably have antibodies in my blood now to 50 or 100 different shaped cold viruses. By the time one of those viruses has infected people between here, North America, Japan, Korea, India, Greece, and back again, its shape has changed so much that I can catch the same cold all over again. That is why we are light years away from a vaccine against the common cold.18
"The kind of readout of genetic information we see in this system is absolutely astounding," asserts Dr. William Haseltine, a prominent investigator at Harvard's Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. "Nobody would have thought this level of transcription [gene activity] was possible before we did these studies. We were shocked. It's about 1,000 times faster than the... genes we know about.
This system is very potent in permitting viruses to replicate at a ferocious rate. It's one reason this is such a devastating disease. It's one of the reasons this virus can be transmitted so easily from person to person."19
Not only does the virus mutate rapidly but once inside the body disappears quickly, making early detection almost impossible.
The trouble with antibodies is that the body takes three days to produce the right antibody for the right virus. During this critical three-day period the body is totally unprotected. Yet only an hour or two after viruses have entered the bloodstream, they have completely disappeared. You can hunt throughout the entire body, cell by cell, with the best electron firing microscope and find nothing. Why? Because every particle has disintegrated. Each one has burst like a child's soap bubble when it touches the ground. The virus bag has disintegrated and vanished. What about the contents? They too have disappeared without trace, but the cell it touched has received the kiss of death. 20
3. Once the virus has attached to the T-4 cell (The General), you cannot kill the virus without killing the cell. Even Surgeon General C. Everett Koop doubts that a cure for AIDS will ever be found:
I don't see how it is going to be possible to attack a virus that works its way into the nucleus of a cell, combines with DNA of that cell, and kill that virus without doing damage to the cell. 21
4. There are at least five genetically distinguishable groups of the AIDS virus. This creates difficulty in coming up with a cure or a vaccine. The AIDS virus is continually mutating. Whatever we give it, it incorporates that into its genetic structure and keeps on going, somewhat like the Energizer Bunny. The same person can harbor multiple forms of the virus. 22These multiple forms could interact with one another and cause the virus to compromise the immune system at a faster pace.
Dr. John Seale, an eminent British venereologist, comments:
The almost unlimited varieties of antigenic strains of lentiviruses produced by antigenic drifts, combined with the inability of antibody produced by the host to eliminate the virus from circulation, have rendered ineffective all attempts to produce vaccines to prevent lentivirus diseases in animals. Effective protection against infection with the AIDS virus using existing vaccination techniques would seem to be theoretically impossible. 23
By 1991, more than one hundred HIV-1 isolates had been identified from ten countries on four continents, and in 1989 French researchers discovered what may be a much more virulent form of HIV-1, far more powerful and contagious than either HIV-I or HIV-II. In fact, all HIV infected people are apparently infected with several mutant forms of the virus.
HIV can change shape in subtle ways in the same person over the course of a few months, and a person can be infected with several differently shaped viruses at once, possibly with varying abilities to cause disease. Even worse, HIV occasionally changes its shape radically. We are currently seeing new HIV-like viruses emerging every year or two somewhere in the world. There are probably at least four [1988 figures; now some estimate fifteen] HIV-like viruses already. An increasing number of people are infected with more than one type of HIV. Every time someone is infected, there is a minute chance that radical new changes will occur. As the number of infected people worldwide continues to double each year, so does the risk of new strains emerging. Incidentally, most of our tests for infection are for the earliest virus type found. The others can be missed. 24
5. Any vaccine developed would be ineffective for those already infected. Any person who is currently infected is capable of spreading the infection to others. By the time any agent is developed that is capable of preventing the AIDS virus from invading the immune system and the brain after it has entered the body (assuming that it is even possible), it will be too late for the millions who will have become infected. The earliest date for a projected vaccine is the turn of the century. In the year 2000 it is estimated there will be 120 million to 150 million people who will be HIV positive in the world. 25And that is the earliest date for a vaccine; that is why we need to get a handle on this now before it is too late.
6. Even if there were a vaccine, it still would not guarantee non infection of the virus. Many people get a flu shot each year to avoid the flu. The flu is also caused by a virus. The reason you need a new flu shot each year is because the flu virus mutates. It takes the vaccination we create and incorporates that into its own genetic makeup. So, if you received last year's flu shot it would do you no good. Also, there is a certain number of people who after receiving a flu vaccination still come down with the flu. This is one of the potential problems with a vaccination for AIDS. No one wants to receive a vaccination for AIDS and come down with the HIV. Plus, there are at least five major strands of AIDS; there would have to be at least that many vaccines. But we are not even close to a vaccine.
Dr. John Seale has noted, "If . . . we wait perhaps 20 years before we take drastic preventive action, half the population of the Western World will be wiped out. 26In his forward to the text, AIDS: The Unnecessary Epidemic, AIDS authority Stanley Monteith, M.D., warns:
When historians of the future record the history of this [AIDS] epidemic, they will record a story of malice and mistakes, illusions and delusions, deceit and deception, of dying and death. They will record how the liberal media, highly placed government officials, and the US Public Health Service worked in collusion to deceive the American public and convince them that every effort was being made to monitor and control the spread of the disease when, in truth, exactly the opposite was done.
It is my sincere hope that I am wrong about a cure.
- G. Antonio, The AIDS Cover-up? The Real and Alarming Facts About AIDS, (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1986) p. 125.
- CDC, "Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the United States: A Review of Current Knowledge," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Supplement, December 18, 1987, Vol. 36, No. S-6. cf. The Arizona Republic, March 28, 1993, p. A2.
- CDC, HN/AIDS Surveillance Report Year End Edition, February 1993, p. 16.
- Department of Labor/Department of Health and Human Services, Joint Advisory Notice: Protection Against Occupational Exposure to Hepatitis B Vinrus (HBV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), October 19, 1987, p.4.
- Nature, March 25, 1993.
- The Arizona Republic, "AIDS Virus Can Hide For Years In Lymph Glands," Thursday, March 25, 1993, p.A2.
- Nature, March 25, 1993.
- The Arizona Republic, "New Drugs Vital in Fight on AIDS, Because AZT is Losing Punch, Study Says," Friday, January 1, 1993, p. 816.
- The Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, January l, 1993.
- Lancet, April 3, 1993.
- The Arizona Republic, "Study Disputes Early Use of AZT Against AIDS," Friday, April 2, 1993, p.A2.
- The Arizona Department of Health Services, HIV Guidelines and Information, "Questions and Answers About AIDS," Module l-Revised June 30, 1989, p. 2.
- G. Antonio, op. cit., pp. 15-20.
- Patrick Dixon, The Whole Truth About AIDS (Nashville: Nelson, 1989), P.40
- Science, March 28, 1993.
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Confirmed.
- Patrick Dixon, The Whole Truth About AIDS, p. 45.
- Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 30 July 1985.
- Patrick Dixon, The Whole Truth About AIDS, p. 40. cf. Science American 255 (1989), pp. 78-88 and 256 (1987), pp. 3848.
- The Arizona Republic, October 13, 1992, p. 86.
- "AlDs-Associated Virus Yields Data to Intensifying Scientific Study," Journal of the American Medical Association, 22/29 November 1985, pp. 2865-2866.
- Seale, 'AIDS Virus Infection: Prognosis and Transmission,"Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1985; 78: 614.
- Patrick Dixon, The Whole Truth About AIDS, p. 45.
- Jonathan Mann, Daniel J.M. Tarantola, and Thomas W. Netter, Editors, AIDS in the World 1992, (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press), October 1992, pp. 5,6.
- ISIS, What Homosexuals Do, Institute for the Scientific Investigation of Sexuality, 1988 (2940 S. 74th St., Lincoln, NE 68506), p. 6.